Fumigation of used hives or where nosema has killed a colony

It is worth fumigating the second-hand hive as nosema spores can persist for a long time. Acetic acid is the recommended method.  Place about 600ml (roughly a pint) of 80% acetic acid in a non metallic tray inside the hive with all of the old frames etc, seal it with tape and leave it for a week.  You will need to ventilate the hive afterwards for a couple of days until there is no lingering smell.